Recipes from Libro di cucina del secolo XIV


Suggestions for meats and sauces along with links to any modern versions of the recipe:

III. Agliata.

Agliata a ogni carne, toy l’aglio e coxilo sotto la braxa, poi pestalo bene e mitili aglio crudo, e una molena de pan, e specie dolçe, e brodo; e maxena ogni cossa insema e fala un pocho bolire e dala chalda.

III. “Agliata”, roasted garlic sauce.
Agliata to serve with every meat. Take a bulb of garlic and roast it under the coals (substitute an oven in the current middle ages). Grind the roasted garlic and mix with ground raw garlic, bread crumbs and sweet spices. Mix with broth, put into a pan and let it boil a little before serving warm.


3 cups peeled garlic or 4-5 large heads of garlic

½ cup raw crushed garlic

1 tsp sweet spice mix from same manuscript, listed below*

2-4 cups broth (I used vegetable, any non-new world will do, i.e. beef, pork, chicken)

2-4 cups bread crumbs (I make my own using approximately 4-6 slices of bread)

If using peeled garlic roast in pan covered with 1 cup of the broth covered in tin foil, if using whole heads of garlic cut just the tops off and wrap in tin foil with a little water, Roast in the oven for 45-60 minutes at 350. Once cooled remove cloves of garlic from skin if not peeled, puree roasted garlic in food processor or mash by hand until smooth. Add raw garlic, spices and broth ( I suggest starting with 2 cups broth and deciding how thick, and strong you’d like the sauce. This sauce can be anywhere from a bare knuckle punch in the face with garlic, to a robust but more subtle flavor, and as there is no indication of thickness you can play with the desired consistency as well depending on what you’re serving it with. I used white bread for the bread crumbs as, aside from the spices this is a fairly white dish. For those with a gluten intolerance I set aside some with no breadcrumbs and they seemed to really enjoyed it.

LXIX. White ginger sauce for capons
If you want to make a white ginger sauce. Take white ginger and crush the well peeled (root), and add sufficient well peeled (stalks removed) spinach and sage. Grind these things well together and add sufficient sugar and temper this sauce with verjuice and with white vinegar.. This sauce one serves raw (cold) with roasted capons and hens.


½ cup fresh crushed ginger

1 cup verjuice (non-fermented sour grape juice) I use Navarro Vineyards, and this bottle was their 2009 Mendocino

¼ cup white wine vinegar

18 oz (three bags) fresh baby spinach, washed, stalks removed

.5 oz fresh sage, washed, stalks removed

Sweetener to taste (I used real sugar for most but set aside some sweetened with splenda)

Grind spinach and sage in food processor or by hand with mortar and pestle, add ginger, liquids, blend well and sweeten to taste. I set aside about 1/5 the entire batch and sweetened it with 1 tbsp of splenda for those who can’t have sugar. The remaining amount was sweetened with ¼ cup real sugar.

VII. Bon savore da polastri.

A fare bon savore a polastri, toy pomegranate e fane vino a mane, e meti in quello vino ben specie dolze, e se ti parese tropo forte, mitige anexo pesto, altrimente aqua rosa. Altri usa a fare vino de pome granate agre e vino de bona uva dolze, e meti questi doy vini in sembre e spesie dolze assai. Se tu non avesti uva meti un pocho de melle, e fai bolire: li specie vole esser crude: non vole star fatto che se guasta.

VII. Good relish for chickens.
To give a good flavor to chickens. Take paradise apples and squeeze out the juice. Put into the apple juice good sweet spices. If it seems to strong, mix dill/anise ground, or rose water. Alternatively use the juice of grated sour apples and juice of good sweet grapes mixed together with enough sweet spices. If you do not have grapes put in a little honey and let it boil. The spices should taste raw, not cooked, don’t allow it to cook to much or the sauce will spoil.
Ingredients: 8 oz pomegranate juice (unsweetened, preferably fresh), 1/4 tsp sweet spice mix, 1/2 tsp rosewater, 1 1/2 tbsp honey.


XIV. Ciuiro overo sauore negro a cengiaro.
Se tu [voy] fare savore negro a porcho salvazo, toy la carne soa ben cocta e ben batuta e ben pesta in mortaro, e toy medola de pan ben arsa che sia ben negra e ben mogliata in aceto e ben macinata per si e ben colata e mescolata con la carne macinata, e metige pevere longo, e melegette, e zenzevro, e ben pesto queste tre cosse a lo speciale, e mectile suso il savore con aceto e con brodo magro de la carne, e meti a bolire questo savore per si in uno vaso. Questo savore de’ essere negro e possente de specie e agro da aceto.
XIV Ciuiro or sauce black to ash gray for boar
If you want to make a black sauce, take meat that is well roasted/cooked and beat it to a paste in a mortar, and take the middle (no crusts) of bread and toast until it is black. Soak this toasted bread in vinegar, break it up and sieve it well and mix it with the shredded meat. Add long pepper, grains of paradise and ginger and grind these three things to a smooth paste. Put the above meat paste a sauce made with vinegar and with lean broth of the meat, and boil this stew/sauce in a pan. This sauce should be black and strong with spices and sharp with vinegar. *Ciuiro is actually a term for a specific style of stew, most likely related to the French civet. At the end it also mentions that the sauce should be “black and strong with spices” so I’ve also chosen to interpret that as including the black and strong spice mix from this same manuscript. There are both balsamic and red wine vinegar in the photo, but I only used the red wine vinegar. I have used balsamic for this recipe in the past and been quite happy with the results, but not being able to document its use in Venice at this time I decided to go the route I could most easily prove they had and used at the time for the sake of historical accuracy.

12 oz of wild boar seasoned and seared on the outside in a hot pan (about 2 minutes per side), then roasted in an oven at 350 until it read 160 on the meat thermometer (about 30 minutes). I let the meat rest for about 10 minutes before cutting a chunk to shred and add to the sauce. I deglazed the pan with the pork broth to get all the wonderful flavors from the roast drippings. The sauce wound up being ¾ cup pork broth, ½ cup shredded boar, ½ cup breadcrumbs soaked in red wine vinegar and 1/8 tsp each ground ginger, ground long pepper, ground grains of paradise, and the black and strong spice mix. The rest of the roast was then cut into slices and plated with the sauce pored over top. It was delicious, but a bit chewy and a bit pucker.

A wild boar or pork loin (12-16 oz)

Bread- good quality wheat or white, 1 loaf

Red wine or balsamic vinegar 1 cup

1 cup pork broth

½ tsp powdered ginger

½ tsp powdered grains of paradise

½ tsp powdered long pepper

½ tsp black & strong spice mix

½ tsp sea salt

Remove the crusts from the bread; toast it until it’s as dark as possible without burning. Cube the toast then crush it in a mortar and pestle or run through a food processor until completely ground. Soak ½ the bread crumbs in the vinegar, reserve the rest for thickening as needed. Pre-heat the oven and a roasting pan at 300 or prepare a rotisserie. Rub the roast/ loin with ½ the spices and pan sear in a bit of lard or EVOO, 2 minutes each side or until it’s nice and brown all around. Roast/ rotisserie until it reads at least 150 on a meat thermometer. While that roasts sieve the bread crumbs with the largest gage strainer you can find (you want to remove any large chunks but have enough solids to thicken the sauce). Let rest 5 minutes and remove a portion of the roast- make a foil tent for the rest while you make the sauce. Shred the small portion of the roast for the sauce, as fine as possible either by hand, in a mortar and pestle or in a good food processor until smooth. Put the roast on a pre-heated serving dish and de-glaze the roasting pan with the pork broth, then add the meat, spices and sieved breadcrumbs & vinegar until you are satisfied with the taste & texture. Add salt to taste and serve sauce either over, or to the side of the roast. ‘

XLVII. Ove plene.

Se tu voy fare ove implite, toy le ove e mitili a bolire e fay che siano ben duri e quando sono cocti traili fuora e mitili in aqua freda e schovrali e tagliali per mezo e trane fuora lo rosso e toy caxo magro al piú che tu poy che sia ben dolze e herbe bone che tu ay ben monde e ben lavate e pestali in lo mortaro. Quando sono bene menate, toy lo rosso de l’ ova, el chasso e le specie e mecti in el mortaro con le herbe bone insieme e pesta bene e fay pastume, e distempera con ove crude e fay che non sea bono, e miti in la padella sopra el focho, e toy li elapi del ova che tu ay e impleli de questo pastume e fay choxere. Quando sono cocti trali fuora e polveriza di sopra del zucharo e dali caldi a tavola. E se tu voy fare savore, toli, etc.

XLVII. Stuffed eggs.
If you want to make stuffed eggs, take the eggs and put to boil and make that they are good hard and when they are cooked take them out and put in cold water and peel and cut in half and pull out the yolks and take cheese fat the most that you can that is good and sweet and good herbs that you have well peeled and well washed and beat (to a paste) in the mortar. When they are well mashed, take the egg yolks and cheese and the spices and put in the mortar with the good herbs together and make a paste and temper with raw eggs and make that it is good and put a frying pan over the fire, and take the halves of eggs that you have and stuff with this paste and put to cook. When they are cooked pull off and powder with sugar and put them hot to the table and if you want to make relish, take etc.

If you want to make stuffed eggs. Take the eggs and put them to boil and make sure that they are hard cooked. When they are cooked pull them out (of the hot water) and put them in cold water. Peel and slice (the eggs) in half and remove the yolk (reserve). Take the fattest sweetest cheese that you have. Take the best herbs that you have, peel them (from the stalk) wash and grind them together in a mortar. When they (the herbs) are well ground take the egg yolks, the cheese and spices and put them in the mortar with the good herbs. Grind all these things together to make a fine paste and temper (mix) with raw eggs until it is good (has the right consistency). Meanwhile put a frying pan over the fire. Take the egg halves and stuff with the paste (of egg yolks and cheese) and put them to cook (in the frying pan). When they are cooked remove from the pan and powder them with sugar before serving them hot to the table. And if you want to serve them savory take them (without sugaring them), etc.


LVIII. Pane de noxe maravigliosso e bone.

Se tu voy fare pan de noce, toy le noce e mondalle e pestale, e toy de herbe bone e un poco de cevola gratà e specie dolze e forte e uno pocho de zucharo, e miti in lo mortaro con le noxe e fa pastume. Poy toy fior de farina e fane un folglio a modo de lasagne grande e largo e sotile, e miti questo batuto suso, e muolzilo tuto insembre e falo a modo de uno pane, e poy lo caricha ch’ el vengna sotille a modo de una fugaza;
metilo a choxere in lo forno, e quando l’ è cocto, trailo fuora e laselo afredare.

LVIII. Bread of walnuts marvelous and good.
If you want to make bread of walnuts, take the nuts and peel and make a paste, and take good herbs and a little grated suet and spices sweet and strong and a little sugar, and put in the mortar with the nuts and make into a paste. Then take flour of wheat and make a sheet in the way of lasagne large and wide and thin, and put this batter over, and move (knead) all together and make in the way of a bread and then the dough it becomes soft in the way of a cake put to cook in the oven, and when it is cooked pull it out and let it chill.

If you want to make a bread of walnuts. Take walnuts and peel and grind them, and take good herbs, a little grated suet, sweet and strong spices and a little sugar. Put these in a mortar with the walnuts and make a paste. Then take wheat flour and make a sheet in the way (that one makes) lasagna, large and wide and thin. Put this (nut) paste within and knead all this together in the same way that one makes bread. Take the dough, when it has become soft like a cake, and put it to cook in the oven, and when it is cooked pull it out and let it cool.
XXIV. Formentra bona e utille perfetta.

Se tu voy fare formentra, toy lo formento, e pestelo ben fin sí che lieva la scorza; poy lavalo ben, poy lo meti a bolire non tropo, poy getta via l’ aqua, poy lo meti entro quello grasso de la carne che tu cosi, e volo essere spesso non tropo, e mitili spesie dolze e forte, e zaferano, e se tu non avesse formento, toy rixo; sarà bono.

XXIV. Maize dish (Frumenty) good and perfectly useful.
If you want to make a frumenty, take the wheat and beat it well to when it leaves the shell/husk, then wash it well, then put it to boil not much, then throw away the water, then put into it that fat of the meat that you choose, and it needs to be not too much, and mix spices sweet and strong and saffron, and if you do not have wheat take rice; it will be good.

If you want to make frumenty, take the wheat berries, and grind/beat it well until the husk lifts, then wash it well. Put it to boil in water, but don’t boil it too much, then pour away the water. Then add inside the fat of whichever animal you wish, and you want to make sure that you don’t add too much. Add sweet and strong spices, and saffron, and if you don’t have wheat then you can take rice, and it will be good.


LXI. Rixo in bona manera.

Se tu voy fare rixo in la meiora manera che fare se poy per XII persone, toy do libre de riso e do de mandole, toy meza libra de zucharo; to lo rixo ben mondo e ben lavato e toy le mandole ben monde e ben lavate e maxenate e distempera con l’ aqua chiara e ben colate in stamegna. Toy lo rixo e mitilo a fogo in aqua chiara; quando è levato lo primo bolire e ben spumato scolavi fuora l’ aqua in contenente e metili el lato de le mandole e fa choxere su la braxa da lonze e mescola spesse intorno che non se rompe; quando boglio streto rezonze suxo del late de le mandole e quando è apres che coto, mitige quantità de zucharo. Questa vivanda vuol esser biancha e molto spessa e quando l’ è cocto polveriza in le manestre del zucharo per suso.

LXI. Rice in a good manner.
If you want to make rice in the best manner that you can for 12 persons, take two pounds of rice and two of almonds, take half a pound of sugar; take the rice well peeled (husked) and washed and take the almonds well peeled and washed and crush and temper with clear water and strain well. Take the rice and put to the fire in clean water, when it is risen to the first boil and is well bubbling take away the water in the pot and put in the almond milk and make to cook over the embers slowly and mix carefully that it does not break; when the almond milk is soaked in and when it is cooked add a quantity of sugar. This dish should be white and very sparing and when it is cooked powder in the serving the sugar over.

If you want to make rice in the best way that you can, if it is for twelve people take two pounds of rice and two (pounds) of almonds and half a pound of sugar. Take the peeled (husked) rice and wash it well. Take the almonds, peel, wash, grind and temper with clear water and strain through a sieve (prepare almond milk). Take the rice and put it on the fire in clean water, when it rises to the boil for the first time, and is boiling well, strain out the water that it contains and put in the almond milk. Continue to cook slowly on the coals (of the fire) and mix carefully so that the rice doesn’t break. When it has soaked up the almond milk and it is just about cooked add the quantity of sugar. This dish should be white and simple and when it is cooked powder with sugar above for serving.

XXV. Fongi.

Se tu voy fare fongi, toli li fongi sechi e metelli a molle in aqua calda e lavaly ben, poy li lesse e poy fali boni como tu voy e conzali; poy toy cepole et herbe e conza cum specie dolze e forte; e poy meti li funzi entro e frizi ogni cossa insieme, e toy mandole non monde e maxenale, e poy mettelli suso i fongi; altri li meti agresta e vole essere caldi.

XXV. Mushrooms
If you want to make mushrooms, take dried mushrooms and set them to moisten in hot water and wash them well, then boil them and then make them good how you want and know; then take onions and herbs and season with sweet and strong spices; and then put the mushrooms into and fry every thing together, and take unpeeled almonds and grind them and then put them over the mushrooms; or else add verjuice and they should be hot.

If you want to make mushrooms, take dried mushrooms and put them to soak in hot water and wash them well. Then boil them a little and make them cook how you want and prefer. Then take onions and herbs and season with strong and sweet spices, and then add the mushrooms and fry everything together. Take unpeeled almonds and grind them and then put on top of the mushroom dish, alternatively you can add verjuice and it needs to be served hot.
XCVIII. Torta de fongi bona e perfettissima.

Se tu voy fare torta de fongi colà, toy li fongi intriegi mondi ben lavati, fane morseli grande e premi ben fuora l’ acqua e toy lardo insalato distruto e ben colato e mitili al sofrigere con esso li fongi e alquanta aqua che non se ardesseno e quando sono apresso cocti, trali fuora in uno catino e mitigi con essi quantità di caxo e de ova e meti questo batuto in uno testo con una crosta molto sutille la qualle forte molto vole essere sotille e zalla e ponderosa de specie e assay fongi e puocho e ova e falla coxere bene.

XCVIII. Tart of mushrooms good and most perfect.
If you want to make tarts of fungi middling, take the mushrooms whole peeled and well washed, make morsels large and squeeze out all the water and take salted lard melted and strained and but to fry with the mushrooms and enough water that they don’t burn (scorch) and when they are just cooked, pull them out in a basin and mix with them a quantity of cheese and of eggs and put this batter in a testo (covered pan) with a crust very thin that is very strong but must be thin and yellow and powder with spices and enough of mushrooms and little of eggs and make it cook well.
* A testo was a covered metal pan that functioned much as today’s dutch ovens do, it was placed in the coals with coals on the lid to create an oven type environment, wherein a pie would cook from above and below.


CII. Torta de schalogne o de cepolle, etc.

Se tu voy fare torta de queste do cosse, toy quale tu voy e fay ben allessare. Pone prima l’ aqua fuora ben con stamegna e po’ le bati finalmente e toy lardo fino e batillo bene; toy l’ ova e caxo frescho e zafarano e bati insiema e fay la torta.

CII. Tart of scallions or of onions, etc.
If you want to make a tart of these things, take that which you want and let it well boil. Take first the water out and then squeeze out the water and finally chop/mash them and take fine lard and beat well; take eggs and fresh cheese and saffron and beat all together and make the tart.

CIV. Torta communa e bona, etc.

Toy la panza del porcho fala alessare e pestala po’ ben, po’ la meti in uno chatino e po’ formazo fresco e menal ben inseme e metili specie dolze e forte e pignoli mondi e uva passa e zafarano e distempera con ova. Per iij libre de carne vole cinque de caxo.

CIV. Tart ready to serve and good, etc.
Take the belly of pork and let it boil then paste it well, then put in a chatino (bowl?) a little fresh cheese and mix them well together and add spices sweet and strong and peeled pine nuts and currents and saffron and temper with eggs. For 3 pounds of meat you want five of cheese.

CV. Torta d’ agli, etc.

Toy li agli e mondali e lessali; quando sono cocti metili a moglio in aqua freda e poy pistali e metili zafarano e formazo assay che sia fresco e lardo batuto e specie dolze e forte e distempera con ova e mitili ova passa e poy fay la torta.

CV. Tart of garlic, etc.
Take the garlic and peel and boil; when they are enough cooked put to soak in cold water then pound and put saffron and cheese enough that is fresh and beaten lard and spices sweet and strong and temper with eggs and put in currants and then make the tart.

CVII. Torta de zuche seche.

Toy le zuche e fale alessare, poy le pesta ben lardo, po’ miti in uno catino; poy toy tre cotanto formazo e pever e zafarano e fa pastume e distempera con ova e fa la torta.

CVII. Tart of gourd dry.
Take the gourd and let it boil, then paste it well with lard, then put in a bowl; then take three cheeses and pepper and saffron and make them paste and temper with eggs and make the tart.

CVIII. Torta de faxolli freschi.

Toli li faxoli e fali coxere con la panza del porcho, poy pesta li faxoli in mortaro e la panza con cortello, poy mitige le meiore specie che poy avere e mitige tanto formazo che sia la mità o almen el terzo del altro batuto, e mitige lardo vechio e fay la torta ed è perfettissima.

CVIII. Tart of fresh beans.
Take the beans and cook them with pork belly, then paste the beans in a mortar and the belly with a knife (chop fine), then put the best spices that you may have and put in much cheese that it is half or less a third of the batter, and mix old lard and make the tart and it is most perfect.

CIX. Torta de fave fresche optima bona.

Torta di Re Manfredo da fava frescha. Toy la fava e mondala, poy la coxe in bono lacte, poy la colla, poy toy panza de porcho cocta e batilla con cortello, e poy miti la fava e la carne insieme, toy le specie dolze e forte e zafarano e meti in catino e mitili de bon formazo fresco e fa el pastume, e poy fay la torta e mitige a quella lessadura entro el pastume, e poy miti per mezo e di sopra fette de formazo dolce e grasso, etc.

CIX. Tart of fresh fava optimally good.
Tart of King Manfredo of fresh favas. Take the favas and peel, then cook in good milk, then strain, take the belly of pork cooked and beat with a knife (chop fine), and then put the favas and meat together, take the spices sweet and strong and saffron and put in the bowl and mix with good fresh cheese and make them paste, and then take the tart and put in this mixture into the pastry, and then put for half and above slices of cheese sweet and fat, etc.
* The fava/meat paste is layered with cheese in the way fava/cheese/fava/cheese, ending with a layer of cheese on top of the mix.

LXV. Rapa armata.

A ffare una rapa armata, fa coxere la rapa in lo fogo; po’ ch’ è cocta, mondala e poy fay
le fette sotille e de caxo dolce fa le fete sotille e tra zaschaduna fetta de rapa miti
una de caxo e lassa cossí ben confettare insieme. Se tu voy tu ge po mettere un testo
caldo suso e serà fato; poi polverizage del zucharo, etc.

LXV. Armored turnips
To make armored turnips, put to cook the turnips in the fire; when they are cooked, peel and make thin slices and of sweet cheese make the slices thin and between each slice of turnip put one of cheese and let them well melt together. If you want you can put them in a hot pot above and they will be done; then powder with sugar; etc.

To make armored turnips, put the turnips to cook in the fire (embers) and when they are cooked peel them and cut into thin slices. Take sweet cheese and make thin slices. Between each slice of turnip put one (slice) of cheese and let them melt well together. If you want you can put them with a hot lid above and they will be done, then powder them with sugar, etc.

XCV. Torta de herbe.

Se tu voy fare torta de herbe per xii persone, toi vi cassi grandi e toy granda quantità de herbe zoè blede, petrosemolo, spinaze, menta, e do libre de lardo salato e octo ova; toy queste herbe ben necte e ben batute e ben spremute del sugo, toy il caxo e trialo con herbe bene grosso taglato e toy lo lardo che tu ay ben batuto al piú che tu poy e toy l’ ova che tu ay e mescola queste cosse insema e miti dentro do croste in el testo e fay zalla la crosta de sovra questa torta molto vole essere grasso e assay caxo e molte herbe e voy essere voa e se voy per men persone, toy le cosse a questa mesura.

XCV. Tart of herbs.
If you want to make tart of herbs for 12 persons, take 6 large cheeses and take a large quantity of herbs that is “blede” parsley, spinach, mint and two pounds of salted lard and eight eggs, take these herbs well cleaned and well beaten and well giving out their juice, take the cheeses and chop (mix) with herbs well large cut and take the lard that you have well beaten to the most that you can take the eggs that you have and mix these things together and put into the crust in the “testo” and make yellow the crust that is over this tort you should want it to be fat with enough cheese and you if you want to make for less people, take the things in this same ratio.
XXIX. Fritelle de pome per quaressima.

Toy le pome e mondalle, po’ taia a modo de hostie e fa un sugolo de farina con sufran, e mitige uva passa, e miti queste pome in questo sugolo; po’ le frige con olio zascuna per si, polverizali zucharo quando eno cocto, etc.

XXIX. Apple fritters for lent.
Take the apples and peel them, then cut in the way of the host (thin slices) and make a batter of flour with saffron and add strained eggs, and put these apples in this batter; then fry with oil enough for it, powder sugar when they are cooked, etc.

Take apples and peel them, then cut in the way of the host (thin circular slices). Make a batter of flour with saffron (and presumably water), and add currants, and put the apples in this batter; then fry them in sufficient oil for each. Powder with sugar when they are cooked, etc.


XXXVII Lean dish or dish with “enula”
Take elecampane (Inula helenium, relative of chicory) peel it and then grind it with raw pork belly, add fresh cheese and temper with eggs. Make a (pie) crust, and put it (the filling) into the pan (pie case) and put some strained grease (oil or lard) and put it to cook (in an oven).

XXXVIII. Lasagne.

Se tu voy fare lansagne de quaressima, toy le lasagne e mitile a coxere, e toli noxe monde e ben pesta e maxenate, e miti entro le lasagne, e guardale dal fumo; e quando vano a tavola, menestra e polverizage de le specie, del zucharo.

If you want to make lasagne in lent, take the lasagne (wide pasta noodles) and put them to cook (in water and salt). Take peeled walnuts and beat and grind them well. Put them between the lasagna (in layers), and guard from smoke (while reheating). And when they go to the table dress them with a dusting of spices and with sugar.

Fresh noodles would be fantastic for this and if you made some with rice flour this would be vegan and potentially gluten free.

CXVIII. Vivanda da fare bon stomacho.

Toy pome codogne e lessale e mondale e pestalle, e toy late de mandole e distempera queste codogne e miti a coxere; quando è cocto mitige specie dolze poche e zucharo assay.

CXVIII. Dish to make a good stomach.
Take apples of quince and boil and peel and paste, and take almond milk and temper these quinces and put to cook; when it is cooked put spices sweet little and sugar enough.

CXXVII. A chonfetare mandole fresche e persiche fresche e noce fresche vogleno essere zovenette, né dure, né tenere, etc.

Toy le ditte e mondale e forale, le noce vol sie buxi e le persiche sie, le mandole quatro. Vol essere messe in l’ aqua e ogni dì muta l’ aqua parechie fiade tanto sia dolze, poy bolila in aqua; le noce vol bolire mez’ ora el persicho e la mandola quando chomenza a intenerire bolirà mezo quarto d’ ora, poi li meti a ssugare a l’ onbra e al vento en uno canestro o suso uno gradizo per tre iorni: le persiche e le mandole per dui dí poi l’ impi per i buxi de garofalli, de canella, de zenzevro; poy fa bolire in mele per ispasio de 6 patrenostre, poy le chava de quello mele e bolile in un altro mele tanto ch’ el mele sia coto; poy sopra el mele miti spesie, fine e miti in uno albarello al sole per ispassio de quindeçe iorni ben chiusse. Le persiche vole essere fatte al ditto modo salvo che le vole bolire in lo primo melle tanto ch’ el siano cocto; non bisognia che sia scambiato. Abi amente che le mandole non vol passare mezo aprile in lochi chaldi, però che la suoa schorsia doventa tropo dura.

CXXVII. To confect fresh almonds and fresh persian nuts and walnuts fresh that you want to be “zovenette”, neither hard, nor soft, etc.
Take the said (nuts) and peel and hole, the walnuts you want six “buxi” (unknown quantity) and of persian nuts six, and almonds four. They should be put in water and change the water much until they are soft, then boil in water, the walnuts want to be boiled a half hour and the persian nuts and almonds when they commence to become tender boil have a quarter of an hour, then one puts them to dry in the shade and the wind in a fruit basket or under a colander for three days: the persian nuts and the almonds for two of them then stuff the holes with cloves, cinnamon, saffron; then make boil in honey for the space of 6 pater nosters, then take out of that honey and boil in another honey much that the honey it is cooked; then put above the honey mix spices, fine and put in an gally pot in the sun for the space of fifteen days well closed. The persian nuts should be done in the said way save that you want to boil in the first honey much that they are cooked; one does not want that they change. Have note that the almonds to not want to dry half of april in a hot spot, else they will burn and become too hard.


CXX. Vino cocto.

A ffare vino cocto, toy vino vermeglo el piú fino che tu poy avere e bono miele; mitilo a bolire insieme e alquanto fiore de canella, e bolia tanto ch’ el torne el terzo e per iiij bichier de vino volo essere uno pien de melle.

CXX. Cooked wine.
To make cooked wine, take ruddy wine the most fine that you might have and good honey; put to boil together with enough flowers of cinnamon, and boil enough that it reduces by a third and for 4 beakers of wine you want one full of honey.

LXXIV. Specie dolce per assay cosse bone e fine.

Le meior specie dolze fine che tu fay se vuoi per lampreda in crosta e per altri boni pessi d’aque dolze che se faga in crosto e per fare bono brodetto e bon savore. Toi uno quarto de garofali e una onza de bon zenzevro e toy una onza de cinamo leto e toy arquanto folio e tute queste specie fay pestare insiema caxa como te piaxe, e se ne vo’ fare piú, toy le cosse a questa medessima raxone et è meravigliosamente bona.

LXXIV Sweet spices, enough for many good and fine things
The best fine sweet spices that you can make, for lamprey pie or for other good fresh water fish that one makes in a pie, and for good broths and sauces. Take a quarter (of an ounce) of cloves, an ounce of good ginger, an ounce of soft (or sweet) cinnamon, and take a quantity (the same amount of?) Indian bay leaves (*) and grind all these spices together how you please. And if you don’t want to do more, take these things (spices) in the same ratio (without grinding) and they will be marvelously good. * the glossary at the end of the Arnaldo Forni edition of this book indicates that folio in this recipe refers to malabathrum or Cinnamomum tamala also known as Indian bay leaf.

Ingredients: 1/4 oz. cloves,1 oz. “good” ginger, 1 oz. “soft or sweet” cinnamon, 1 oz. Indian bay leaves.



(Text from

Translated 2002 CE by Helewyse de Birkestad (MKA Louise Smithson) from the transcription of Ludovico Frati (ed.): Libro di cucina del secolo XIV. Livorno 1899 prepared and made available online by Thomas Gloning.

Interpretation of recipes by Heather Ruiter / Signora Onorata Raffaella di Contino, Courtier to Their Exellencies of Aquaterra


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