i.     Aghetti – Laces made of ribbon and metal tips.

ii.     Balzo – a large rounded form headdress that was popular in the 1400s to the early 1500s.

iii.     Baragoni – the decorative gathering of the upper sleeve (Landini 2005, pp249).

iv.     Becche – garters for stockings, made of silk or velvet.

v.     Borzacchini – Ankle boots (Landini 2005-pp143).

vi.     Braccia – unit of measurement used by the Florentines. One braccia of fabric = 58.8 cm (a modern yard of fabric is 91.4 cm). A gamurra required 10 – 15 braccia of fabric, which would be 6.5 – 10 yards.

vii.     Brochetta – brooch. A brochetta di spalla was worn on the shoulder and a brochetta di testa was worn in the hair.

viii.     Camicia – an undergarment that protected the outer layers of fabric from direct body contact.

ix.     Chermisi or Cremisi – Source for red dye. An insect that when crushed gives a red liquid appropriate for dying the most expensive fabrics.

     Chopine – Shoes worn in Tuscany and Venezia with distinguishing high platforms or wood or cork. Typically worn over pianelle, they were decorated and used to protect the fine slippers from mud and water.

xi.     Cintura – A decorated girdle/belt made of fabric, metal plates or chain, pearls/gems, or a combination thereof. Paintings depict women hanging small bags, fans, tassels, pomanders of perfume, and sables from their cintura. The painting “St. Eligius in His Shop from 1370 depicts a goldsmith’s cintura for sale.

xii.     Cinquecento – 1500s, literally 500 in Italian.

xiii.     Cioppa – a sleeved overgown called a cioppa in Naples, a pellanda in the north, and a sacco in Bologna (Herald 1981 214).

xiv.     Coazzone – A long, hanging braid of hair. Usually wrapped in ribbons and sometimes worn with a trinzale (a delicate fabric or metal cap on the back of the head, Herald 81 215). Often accompanied by a circlet of string called a lenza, a fashion imported from Spain.

xv.     Colletto – A partlet or collar which was developed in response to a call for modesty from religious leaders (i.e. 1464 decree in Florence ordering that necklines be no more than 3.5 cm from the base of the neck, references on the Festive Attyre site and in Brown 2001). Also called a fazzoletto (Herald 1981), coverciere (Brown 2001), or gorgiera. It began as an unadorned silk drape, tied in front and worn on top of the bodice in the quattrocento and morphed into an ornamented covering worn under the bodice (embroidered, pleated, braided, laced, or jeweled. Landini 2005, pp250).

     Copricalla – A term encompassing bonnets, berets, and headcoverings in general. Thought of as men’s fashion, Eleonora di Toledo made these popular for women in the 1540s (Landini 2005 pp157)

xvii.     Cotta – A lighter version of the gamurra or gonnella. It is a gown which has detached sleeves, often of a contrasting color or fabric (Herald 1981, pp215).

     Firenze – Florence, City of.

xix.     Gamurra – Known as the camora, zimarra, zottana, gonella, and zupa, this was the basic term for “gown” from the 1300s to the 1500s and worn by all classes in a variety of colors and fabrics.

     Giornea – An overgown (over the gamurra) that was sleeveless, open on the sides and down the front, and could have an optional train. It is pictured like a summer overdress, but it could be lined for winter according to Herald 1981, 218.

xxi.     Gonnella – The simple dress of the 1300/1400s. Duby states “A woman at home, no matter what her station, was likely to wear a gonnella (fourteenth century) or gamurra (fifteenth century)… So dressed, she could go about her household chores and even run errands or make informal visits in the neighborhood.”

     Gozzi – fashion of the 1450s, with characteristic wide sleeves of an overdress that were gathered at the wrist.

xxiii.     Guardaroba – Italian for Wardrobe.

     Guarnello – A sheer overdress for home pastimes and after birth for mothers. Seen in Botticelli’s “Three Graces” and “Smeralda Bandinelli” in 1470s (Musscahio 2008:84). Also, Botticelli painted

     Mantello – Mantle, in English. This was a long cloak that could be lined or unlined and draped over the shoulders and head (by older women according to Herald 222).. The most common fabric for this was wool (Frick 313). This was the most common over garb until the time of Eleonora di Toledo, who only had one listed in her inventory. After the mid-1500s zimarras and vesti outpaced the mantello in popularity. A shorter version was used by many women in Eleonora’s time called a mantellina. They were wool or silk and could be lined and fastened in front with decorated frog closures (like the zimarra) and trim.

     Perla – Pearls were loved for centuries in Italy. They were used in necklaces and earrings, and also o decorate snoods, partlets, and girdles.

xxvii.     Pianelle – Heavy-soled slipper shoes that could range from plain to laced, buckled, or slashed on top.

xxviii.     Poste or Sottoposte – A lightweight silk veil produced in Venice and exported all over Europe. They were worn around the waist like a belt, but were useful in a variety of ways and treated like a multipurpose scarf. Birbari speaks of a “veil, kerchief or scarf” which was an important accessory in a woman’s wardrobe, being worn on the head, or over the shoulders.

     Quattrocento – 1400s, literally 400 in Italian.

xxx.     Scapini – flat shoes (Landini, 2005, 143).

     Saccoccia – Also called tasca, this was a small purse tied to the waist underneath the skirt and able to be reached through a slit in the fabric.

xxxii.     Sengaletto – This is the name for lacing string. It was made of silk and had knots or metal at the ends which made spiral lacing easier (Landini 2005: 83).

xxxiii.     Sottana – similar to the English “Kirtle” Petticoat of the Tudor era, this dress was worn as an overdress in the cinquecento that could optionally be layered under a sleeved or sleeveless zimarra.

     Trecento – 1300s, literally 300 in Italian.

xxxv.     Velo – The fine veils of the quattrocento were worn over braided or bound hairstyles adorned with frenelli (strung pearls) and a brochetta di testa (brooch for the hair).

xxxvi.     Venezia – Venice, City of.

xxxvii.     Zimarra – A long loose coat-like overgown with fastenings and (sometimes) sleeves. Inspired by Turkish Caftans (Landini 2005 pp252) and equipped with small pockets (Landini2005-pp110), these were the favorite overgarment of Eleonora di Toledo who had short sleeved versions for summer and lined long sleeved versions for winter.

xxxviii.     Zoccoli – Platform shoes worn by men and women similar to the chopine (for protection), but not as high or decorated as fancy.

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